Radio frequency identification (RFID) has been utilized to increase efficiency and care quality in hospitals for patient information management, drug and equipment inventory, scheduling and staffing. To further improve healthcare, enable new diagnosis and treatment while aiming to reduce costs, major technical challenges still exist. Limited sampling and acquisition of physiological parameters during the interaction period for caregivers and patients provide incomplete information about the patients. Better care with higher diagnosis accuracy can be provided if more and time-lapsed data can be obtained without causing patients discomfort or limiting their mobility. Meanwhile, patient data documentation has become too cumbersome. The lack of portability and timely accessibility of the physiological information prevent real-time management by caregivers and/or patients themselves. Wireless technologies bring promising solutions to the aforementioned issues. Low-cost portable wireless electronics have made significant impacts to our societies. Furthermore, recent advances in micro- and nano-technologies provide unique interfacing functionalities to human tissues, and advantages such as miniaturization and low power consumption enabling novel applications in medicine and biological studies. Interfaces between biological objects and electronics allow quantitative measurement and documentation of physiological and biochemical parameters, and even behaviors. The interfaces also provide direct control or modification of cells, tissues, or organs by the electrical circuits making it possible to manage chronic diseases with a closed loop between biological objects and computers. With wireless communication, implantable devices and systems make the interfacing possible for freely behaving animals or patients without constrains, discomfort or limits in mobility. This increases the study or diagnosis accuracy in realistic environments as well as permits remote synthesis of physiological functions and delivery of therapeutic treatment. Furthermore, wireless communication enables networks for ubiquitous access to physiological information at various system levels either within one?s body or within a group of patients for better deterministic and statistical understanding of issues in complex systems. The lecture focuses on the development of wireless micro devices and systems for clinical and biological applications. The systems are based on technology platforms such as wireless energy transfer for batteryless implants, miniature electrochemical sensors, nanoparticle modified surfaces, microelectromechanical system devices and microwave communication. In this talk, several implantable wireless diagnosis and therapeutic treatment systems will be discussed. An integrated wireless body network for chronic pain management has been demonstrated with wireless closed-loop integration of neurorecorders to recognize pain signals and neurostimulators to inhibit pain. Batteryless endoluminal sensing telemeter architecture has been demonstrated for an esophagus implant for remote diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), an endoscopically-implantable wireless gastro-stimulator for gastroparesis management, and a wireless bladder volume monitoring implant for urinary incontinence management. These applications enable new medicines to improve human welfare and assist better living.
This video is the DML presentation by Prof. J. C. Chiao and focuses on the development of wireless micro devices and systems for medical applications.