Estimation of Individual Device Contributions for Incentivizing Federated Learning

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Federated learning (FL) is an emerging technique used to train a machine-learning model collaboratively using the data and computation resource of the mobile devices without exposing privacy-sensitive user data. Appropriate incentive mechanisms that motivate the data and mobile-device owner to participate in FL is key to building a sustainable platform for FL. However, it is difficult to evaluate the contribution level of the devices/owners to determine appropriate rewards without large computation and communication overhead. This paper proposes a computation-and communication-efficient method of estimating a participating device's contribution level. The proposed method enables such estimation during a single FL training process, there by reducing the need for traffic and computation overhead. The performance evaluations using the MNIST dataset show that the proposed method estimates individual participants' contributions accurately with 46-49% less computation overhead and no communication overhead than a naive estimation method.